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Excavation often seems to the general public the main and certainly the most glamorous aspect of archaeology; but fieldwork and excavation represent only a part of the archaeologist’s work.

The other part is the interpretation in cultural and historical contexts of the facts established—by chance, by fieldwork, and by digging—about the material remains of man’s past.

Practitioners of archaeology find themselves allied (often simultaneously)...

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This gave a chronology of about 18,000 years—three times as long as the man-made chronology based on Egyptian and Mesopotamian king lists.

Thus, absolute dates could be established for artifacts from the Late Paleolithic Period, the whole of the .

But even in properly observed and recorded stratigraphic levels there is often doubt, and the question arises: are all the artifacts and human remains found in the same level contemporary?

Is it possible that there could have been later intrusions that have been difficult to distinguish in the field? If bones in apparently the same geological or archaeological level have markedly different fluorine content, then it is clear that there must be interference—for example, by a later burial, or by deliberate planting of faked remains, as happened in the case of the and records in Egypt and Mesopotamia goes back only 5,000 years.

This task of interpretation has five main aspects., the first requirement is a good and objective taxonomy.